Blood groups of human blood are immunologically distinct basing on presence or absence of certain antigens. Blood typing is used to determine A, B, AB or O blood type.
It is chemical and visual analyses of urine in the routine medical workup of patients. Ideally first morning urine is interpreted for pH, Specific gravity, proteins, red blood cells, leucocytes, glucose, ketones, nitrites, urobilinogen and urinary bilirubin.
Urine sample is used for determining of the amount of free radicals in the body.
Urine sample is used for determining of indican when overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel is suspected or malabsorption, stasis of bowel contents, maldigestion etc. are present.
Determining blood glucose level with glucometer (device used by people with diabetes for self-monitoring) is good initial screening for diabetes.
Urine sample is used to interpret adrenal function.
Urine sample is used for determining of dietary calcium uptake important for osteoporosis.
Urine sample is used for assessing vitamin C level in the body. It is important in for such conditions as chronic perennial rhinitus, often colds, diabetes mellitus, echymosis.
Gastric acid in stomach plays important role in breakdown of proteins and protection of upper GI tract from bacterial overgrowth. This is a screening test for gastric hypo- or achlorhydria. It is often associated with such symptoms as bloating, fullness, indigestion, hair loss, cracked nails, iron deficiency.